The president also stated, the war will not end until Kyiv stops fighting as efforts to evacuate the heavily bombarded city of Mariupol fell apart for a second day in a row.
Most people trapped in the port city are sleeping in bomb shelters to escape more than six days of near-constant shelling by encircling Russian forces that has cut off food, water, power and heating supplies, according to the Ukrainian authorities.
The civilian death toll from hostilities across Ukraine since Russia launched its invasion on February 24 stood at 364, including more than 20 children, according to the United Nations on Sunday, with hundreds more injured.
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said most civilian casualties were caused by the use of "explosive weapons with a wide impact area, including shelling from heavy artillery and multi-launch rocket systems, and missile and air strikes".
"War is madness, please stop," Pope Francis said in his weekly address to crowds in St Peter's Square, adding that "rivers of blood and tears" were flowing in Ukraine's war.
Putin made his demand for Ukraine to end the fighting in a phone call with Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan, who appealed for a ceasefire.
Putin told Erdogan he was ready for dialogue with Ukraine and foreign partners but any attempt to draw out negotiation would fail, a Kremlin statement said.
Russian media said Putin also held almost two hours of talks on Sunday with French President Emmanuel Macron.
Macron told Putin he was concerned about a possible imminent attack on the southern Ukrainian city of Odessa, Macron's office said.
Anti-war protests took place around the world including in Russia itself, where police detained over 4300 people, an independent protest monitoring group said.
The interior ministry said 3500 demonstrators had been held, included 1700 people in Moscow and 750 in St Petersburg.
Thousands of protesters chanted "No to war!" and "Shame on you!" according to videos posted on social media by opposition activists and bloggers.
In the besieged city of Mariupol, authorities had said on Sunday they would make a second attempt to evacuate some of the 400,000 residents.
But the ceasefire plan collapsed, as it had on Saturday, with each side blaming the other for the failure.
The International Committee of the Red Cross said the failed attempt to allow 200,000 people to leave had underscored "the absence of a detailed and functioning agreement between the parties to the conflict".
According to pro-Russian separatists, about 300 people were initially able to leave Mariupol.
"They're destroying us," Mariupol mayor Vadym Boychenko told Reuters in a video call, describing the city's plight before the latest evacuation effort failed.
"They will not even give us an opportunity to count the wounded and the killed because the shelling does not stop."
Moscow calls its campaign a "special military operation," saying it has no plans to occupy Ukraine.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy said Russian rockets had destroyed the civilian airport of the central-western region capital of Vinnytsia on Sunday.
Russian forces opened fire at a protest against their occupation of the southern Ukrainian city of Nova Kakhovka on Sunday, wounding five people, Ukrainian news agency Interfax Ukraine said, citing eyewitnesses.
Ukrainians continued to pour into Poland, Romania, Slovakia and elsewhere.
The United Nations said more than 1.5 million had fled in Europe's fastest growing refugee crisis since World War II.
Sanctions have pushed many companies to exit investments in Russia while some Russian banks have been shut out of a global financial payment systems, driving down the rouble and forcing Russia to jack up interest rates.
Tightening the screws further, US payment companies Visa Inc and MasterCard Inc said they would suspend credit card operations in Russia.