The case number surpasses the 2020 second wave peak of 686, which had been revised down from the original count of 725 cases due to duplications.
The new cases brings the latest outbreak's death toll to 20 and there are 6666 active infections in the state.
There were 62,408 coronavirus tests processed and 40,957 vaccine doses administered at state hubs on Wednesday, according to the health department.
Melbourne is bracing for its fourth day of protests, as police report that fewer demonstrators are tradies angered by mandatory COVID-19 vaccinations or the construction industry shutdown.
A mob of 300 to 400 again swarmed the Victorian capital on Wednesday, despite stay-at-home orders and repeated warnings from authorities.
Chanting "every day" from the Shrine of Remembrance, hundreds without masks - some still wearing high-visibility clothing - marched through the city to the war memorial.
Heavily armed police surrounded the shrine, leading to a tense stand-off with protesters that lasted about three hours.
About 400 to 600 people took to Melbourne's streets on Wednesday, Chief Commissioner Shane Patton told 3AW on Thursday,
Riot squad members appeared to fire tear gas, rubber bullets and other non-lethal rounds when rioters became increasingly hostile and refused to leave.
Two officers suffered head injuries after bottles were thrown at them.
Victoria Police Deputy Commissioner Ross Guenther said 215 arrests were made over the course of the day and condemned the occupation of the shine for political purposes.
"It was completely disrespectful that the crowd ended up at the shrine, which is such hallowed ground in this great city," he said on Wednesday.
RSL Victoria said the mob had disrespected the sanctity of the sacred site, while Shrine of Remembrance chief executive told ABC on Thursday "there had been urination on the walls of the Shrine of Remembrance, which is disgusting that those sort of things should have occurred, and rubbish strewn everywhere."
Prime Minister Scott Morrison condemned the gathering at the shrine, telling reporters in Washington "the conduct was disgraceful".
"This is a sacred place, it's not a place of protest. It was disrespectful and it dishonoured those Australians who have made the ultimate sacrifice," he said.
"I would hope any and all who were engaged in that disgraceful behaviour, would be ashamed."
The protests initially began in opposition to mandatory COVID-19 vaccinations for the construction sector and the closure of building site tea rooms, but have since turned into wider unrest.
Police took a more aggressive approach to the mob after they wreaked havoc on the West Gate Freeway on Tuesday.
Liberal MP Bernie Finn criticised the heavy police presence in a Facebook post on Wednesday night.
"I have always been a staunch supporter of the men and women of Victoria Police. I can't extend that support to the modern incarnation of the Despot's militia. It horrifies me," he said.
Fellow Liberal MP Brad Battin responded in a comment underneath the post, saying Mr Finn's opinion is "not the view of the Liberal Party".
"The police are delivering on bad laws by a terrible government. The front line can't choose which laws to follow. As a former police officer I understand what it is like to face protesters - it is not great," Mr Battin said.
Meanwhile, the regional city of Ballarat emerged from a seven-day lockdown at midnight on Wednesday, although strict rules remain.