Wednesday's vote in the Democratic-controlled House was 232-197, following the deadly assault on American democracy, although it appeared unlikely the swift impeachment would lead to Trump's ousting before his four-year term ends and Democratic President-elect Joe Biden is inaugurated on January 20.
The Senate's Republican majority leader, Mitch McConnell, rejected Democratic calls for a quick impeachment trial, saying there was no way to conclude it before Trump leaves office. But even if he has left the White House, a Senate conviction of Trump could lead to a vote on banning him from running for office again.
The House passed a single article of impeachment - a formal charge - accusing Trump of "incitement of insurrection", focused on an incendiary speech he delivered to thousands of supporters shortly before the pro-Trump mob rampaged through the Capitol. The mob disrupted the formal certification of Biden's victory over Trump in the November 3 election, sent lawmakers into hiding and left five people dead, including a police officer.
During his speech, Trump repeated false claims that the election was fraudulent and exhorted supporters to march on the Capitol.
In a video statement released after the vote, Trump did not mention the impeachment vote and took no responsibility for his remarks to supporters last week, but condemned the violence.
"Mob violence goes against everything I believe in and everything our movement stands for. No true supporter of mine could ever endorse political violence. No true supporter of mine could ever disrespect law and order," Trump said.
With thousands of rifle-carrying National Guard troops inside and outside the Capitol, an emotional debate unfolded in the same House chamber where lawmakers had crouched under chairs and donned gas masks on January 6 as rioters clashed with police officers outside the doors.
"The president of the United States incited this insurrection, this armed rebellion against our common country," House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, said. "He must go. He is a clear and present danger to the nation that we all love."
No US president has been removed through impeachment. Three - Trump in 2019, Bill Clinton in 1998 and Andrew Johnson in 1868 - were impeached by the House but acquitted by the Senate.
Some Republicans argued the impeachment drive bypassed the customary deliberative process such as hearings and called on Democrats to abandon the effort for the sake of national unity and healing.
"Impeaching the president in such a short time frame would be a mistake," said Kevin McCarthy, the House's top Republican. "That doesn't mean the president is free from fault. The president bears responsibility for Wednesday's attack on Congress by mob rioters."
Ten Republicans voted to impeach, including Liz Cheney, the No.3 House Republican.
"I am not choosing a side, I'm choosing truth," Republican Jamie Herrera Beutler said in announcing her support for impeachment. "It's the only way to defeat fear."
Impeachment in the House triggers a trial in the Senate. A two-thirds majority would be needed to convict and remove Trump, meaning at least 17 Republicans in the 100-member chamber would have to join the Democrats.
McConnell has said no trial could begin until the Senate was back in regular session on January 19, one day before Biden's inauguration. The trial would proceed in the Senate even after Trump leaves office.
McConnell, who is reported to be furious with Trump, has told his fellow Republicans he has not made a final decision on how he would vote on impeachment.
Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer, who is set to become majority leader later this month, said no matter the timing, "there will be an impeachment trial in the United States Senate ... and if the president is convicted, there will be a vote on barring him from running again".
The House impeached Trump after he ignored calls for his resignation and Pence rebuffed Democratic demands to invoke a constitutional provision to remove the president.
The House previously voted to impeach Trump in December 2019 on charges of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress stemming from his request that Ukraine investigate Biden and his son Hunter ahead of the election. The Senate in February 2020 voted to keep Trump in office.
The FBI has warned of armed protests planned for Washington and all 50 US state capitals before Biden's inauguration.