A senior Chinese official inflamed tensions after publishing a doctored image of an Australian soldier holding a bloody knife to the throat of an Afghan child.
The provocative piece of propaganda referenced allegations of war crimes, including murder and torture, by Australian troops in Afghanistan.
Prime Minister Scott Morrison described the image as repugnant and demanded China apologise and remove the post.
Neither was forthcoming, with the Chinese foreign ministry doubling down and suggesting Australia should do some soul-searching over the actions of its special forces.
Labor has joined the government in condemning the "cheap and offensive" image.
"I think it's very important that we respond in a calm and measured way and make very clear what we believe is acceptable," Labor foreign affairs spokeswoman Penny Wong told the ABC on Tuesday.
The offensive, doctored photograph is not the behaviour of a responsible, mature, international country.
Afghanistan's ministry of foreign affairs released a statement confirming it was investigating the image.
"The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan believes that both Australia and China are key players in building and maintaining international and regional consensus on peace and development in Afghanistan," it said.
"Afghanistan hopes to maintain and strengthen cooperation with the two countries."
The bitter public spat is playing out at the same time as a worsening trade dispute between Australia and China.
China has hit a wide range of Australian exports including coal, timber, grain and seafood with bans and tariffs.
The Australian wine industry has been especially hard hit.
Dianne Tipping from the Export Council of Australia said the trade dispute made it critically important to find other markets.
China is furious with Australia for demanding an investigation into the origins of coronavirus, speaking out about human rights abuses, and clamping down on foreign investment and interference.