The new measures will apply to all parts of Australia designated as a virus hotspot that are locked down for more than seven days.
People who usually work more than 20 hours a week will receive $500, while those employed for under 20 hours will be given $325.
Prime Minister Scott Morrison said the new coronavirus disaster payments would be made on a week-to-week basis.
"Victorians just want to know that they are getting help next week," he told reporters in Canberra on Thursday.
To be eligible for the payments, workers will have to declare having less than $10,000 in liquid assets.
Welfare recipients, including those on JobSeeker, will not be able to access the payment.
Applications can be made through Services Australia from Tuesday.
The federal government refused to offer Victoria a financial support package during the first week of lockdown.
But after the lockdown was extended for a second week in Melbourne, the temporary payments were announced.