Some Democrats have been pushing for billionaires to pay taxes when the price of the stocks they hold goes up, even if they don't sell any shares.
It's a concept called "unrealised gains", and Musk is sitting on a lot of them with a net worth of roughly $US300 billion ($A402 billion).
"Much is made lately of unrealized gains being a means of tax avoidance, so I propose selling 10% of my Tesla stock," Musk tweeted on Saturday afternoon. "Do you support this?"
A little more than two hours after Musk's initial tweet, 54 per cent said yes out of a total of 876,189 votes.
Much of Musk's wealth is held in shares of Tesla, which does not pay him a cash salary.
"I only have stock, thus the only way for me to pay taxes personally is to sell stock," he tweeted.
Musk, who is known for his sometimes flippant tweets, said he would "abide by the results of this poll".
AAP with The Project