It was a stellar display by Hamilton - who locked up his fourth consecutive pole position in Melbourne, and marks the 62nd time he will be starting a Formula 1 race at the front of the grid.
Hamilton will be joined on the front-row by Ferrari's Sebastian Vettel, who finished 0.268 seconds behind the pace - and all eyes will be on the battle between Mercedes and Ferrari, after dominant displays from both teams in the practice sessions leading up to qualifying.
The battle between Mercedes and Ferrari continued in the second row of the grid, as Valtteri Bottas qualified third fastest in his first time-trial as a part of the Three Arrows, while Kimi Raikkonen will start alongside him in fourth.
Red Bull's Max Verstappen will start from fifth, five places ahead of his teammate Ricciardo - who was relegated to tenth after failing to clock a time in the final qualifying session.
It was a heartbreaking session for Ricciardo, who was hoping to challenge the top teams and sneak into the front two rows for his home Grand Prix - but an unfortunate spin-out on his first lap of the qualifying session was the end of his hopes of an upset.
Haas's Romain Grosjean had a solid outing and will start the race in sixth, while Felipe Massa sits ahead of the Toro Rosso duo of Carlos Sainz and Daniil Kvyat who round out the top ten.